glutinous rice wine
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glutinous rice wine

glutinous rice wine

J. Chromatogr. Identification of a pantoea biosynthetic cluster that directs the synthesis of an antimicrobial natural product. With respect to the overall proportion, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, and Bacillus were the dominant genera in AS, whereas Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and Gluconobacter were the predominant genera detected in XY. 102, 295–304. Bioinformatics 27, 2957–2963. A total of seven organic acids along with 47 (AS) and 43 (XY) volatile metabolites were detected, among which lactic acid was the primary organic acid, and esters were the largest group in both types of wine. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});Put the distiller’s yeast in a bowl and grind it into powder with a spoon. Rice wine has been traditionally consumed in East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Its alcohol content can be in the range of 18% to 25%. Acetic acid bacteria: a group of bacteria with versatile biotechnological applications. 78, 373–381. At day 0, Pantoea (19.27%) and Klebsiella (14.35%) occupied the main position in AS samples, whereas Leuconostoc (12.40%) was the predominant bacterial genus in the XY samples. 40, e12427. We also demonstrated that LAB contributed to the formation of 2,3-butanediol, which was also detected as the characteristic compound of XY after fermentation. a–e: Different letters represent significant differences (p < 0.05) during fermentation. Analysis of microbial diversity and dynamics during wine fermentation of Grenache grape variety by high-throughput barcoding sequencing. Microbiol. Cơm rượu: Glutinous rice balls cooked and mixed with yeast, served in a small amount of rice wine. Tang, Q., He, G., Huang, J., Wu, C., Jin, Y., and Zhou, R. (2019). Yeast diversity in Thai traditional alcoholic starter. In addition, the levels of pyruvate and succinic acids both showed an upward trend. 46, 393–399. 2-Methoxy-phenol was the characteristic phenol detected in XY, and its content was significantly higher than that of AS. 9:894. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00894, Su, W., Mu, Y., Qi, Q., Mu, Y., and Yu, X. In AS, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, and Lactococcus were all positively correlated with citric acid, and Bacillus contributed to an increase in tartaric acid. In addition, Rhizopus, Saccharomyces, and Saccharomycopsis were the predominant fungal genera detected in both samples. Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, and Bacillus were the dominant bacterial genera in the AS group, whereas Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and Gluconobacter were the dominant genera in the XY group. The analysis of organic acids in the samples was performed by HPLC, according to Yu (2014), with some modifications. Zhang, X., Tian, X., Ma, L., Feng, B., Liu, Q., Yan, L., et al. (n = 3, *0.01 < p < 0.05, **p < 0.01). 6 Kilo Glutinous Rice 18 pcs small wine biscuit ( 3pcs of wine biscuit per kilo) 3 bottles Chinese white wine. Int. 1.Cook approximately 1.5 kg of glutinous rice with water in normal rice cooker. Microbiol. Similarly, Pantoea has been identified as the most dominant bacteria in Hong Qu starters (Coutinho and Venter, 2009; Walterson et al., 2014). Beijing: Code of China. Bacterial diversity analysis during the fermentation processing of traditional chinese yellow rice wine revealed by 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing. UCHIME improves sensitivity and speed of chimera detection. Put some distiller’s yeast powder on the bread barrel.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'misschinesefood_com-box-4','ezslot_7',116,'0','0'])); Pour the glutinous rice from step 7 into the barrel of the bread machine, press out a hole about 5cm in the middle with your fist, and pour in the water for steaming the glutinous rice. Curr. J. Inst. In addition, a small number of other compounds (such as ketones, alkenes, alkanes) were detected in the BGRW (Figure 5F). 255, 58–65. The aldehydes (Figure 5D) and phenols (Figure 5E) showed fluctuating trends in the two samples. Limtong, S., Sintara, S., Suwannarit, P., and Lotong, N. (2002). Just as other regional varieties made not from grapes but cereal are commonly called wine rather than beer, sato is commonly called Thai rice wine. Why is it so sticky? Dynamic changes to alpha-diversity indices during BGRW fermentation showed that richness and diversity of two samples were changed significantly during the fermentation process (Supplementary Table S2). Here are a few ideas: Use sticky rice to make a layer cake dessert or the classic Thai favorite, mango rice. 71, 356–363. 3, 2–8. High-throughput sequencing of the microbial community using the Illumina MiSeq platform revealed significant differences during fermentation between the two starter groups. By contrast, in XY, the malic acid content declined at 4 and 24 days but showed an upward trend from 6 to 17 days. B., Muyanja, C. M. B. K., Langsrud, T., and Narvhus, J. Pantoea is common endophytes of rice (Megías et al., 2016) with antibacterial properties and is therefore often used as a biological control agent. This choice works like a charm, particularly if you can buy pale dry sherry. After saccharification, the main reaction in mash involves the action of yeasts that use fermentable sugars to produce ethanol and other products. |, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00593/full#supplementary-material, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Koyanagi et al. Technol. Seven organic acids were detected in the two wines: pyruvate, lactic, oxalic, citric, succinic, malic, and tartaric acids. Rice Wine Vs. Rice Vinegar . In addition, BGRW has many potential medicinal properties, including antioxidant ability and a protective effect on the kidney (Su et al., 2015; Qi et al., 2018). It’s made with sweet rice (AKA sticky rice, or glutinous rice) that is fermented with a distiller’s yeast we call 酒曲 (jiu qu) in Chinese. Figure 7. Put a layer of cooked glutinous rice into a clean jar. Characterizing relationship of microbial diversity and metabolite in sichuan xiaoqu. A., Kaisa, P., Marco, G., and Rizzello, C. (2014). Volume: 620ml. The PCA scores can be used to quantify the difference in the distribution of the samples at different fermentation stages, which may be caused by the different starters. J. Microbiol. The level of amino acid nitrogen directly affects the quality grade and overall flavor of wine. Sci. However, in XY, the proportion of Bacillus increased to the highest level of 64.09% at day 6 and then showed a subsequent rapid decline in parallel with the increase in abundance of Leuconostoc and Pediococcus. The whole process was worth it and now my younger friends can have Rice Wine Chicken during their confinement, just inform me and i will brew some. doi: 10.1021/jf501214c. 33, 1260–1271. Finally, to determine the relationships among the metabolites and core microorganisms detected in the BGRW, correlation matrixes were constructed based on Pearson correlation coefficients. (2003). LJ performed the statistical analysis and wrote the manuscript. Received: 31 December 2019; Accepted: 18 March 2020;Published: 17 April 2020. DNA Transfer Gene Expression Microorg 3, 251–262. doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.03.054, Lv, X. C., Jiang, Y., Liu, J., Guo, W., Liu, Z., and Zhang, W. (2017). Med. 62, 5796–5804. In addition, the rarefaction curve based on OTUs approached the saturation plateau (Supplementary Figure S1), suggesting that the sequencing depth was adequate to represent the actual microbial structure of the samples. Food Microbiol. doi: 10.1007/s12161-013-9778-2. Impact of next generation sequencing techniques in food microbiology. 88.6g. Dijl, J. M. V., and Jong, A. D. (1993). The overall proportion of Aspergillus in XY was higher than that in AS, with the highest proportion (0.05%) detected at day 2. Rice wine is somewhat clear and sweet and is used in marinades to tenderize meat and seafood, as well as to impart flavor to food. Method. Acetoin is an important physiological metabolite that is excreted by many microorganisms and serves as a quality indicator of fermented products (Xiao and Xu, 2007). The UCLUST tool in QIIME software (version 1.8.0) was further used to cluster the tags at a 97% similarity level to obtain operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and taxonomic annotation was carried out on the obtained OTUs based on the Silva (bacteria) and UNITE (fungi) taxonomic databases (Edgar et al., 2011). doi: 10.1128/genomeA.01681-15, Miya, M., Sato, Y., Fukunaga, T., Sado, T., Poulsen, J. Y., Minamoto, T., et al. For the fungal communities, clustered corresponding to the AS and XY samples could be observed from 2 to 24 days of fermentation (Supplementary Figures S2C,D). Analysis of volatile compounds in shochu koji, sake koji, and steamed rice by gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry. Biochem. Soak glutinous rice with water in a steaming tray for an hour. (2017). However, the change in yeast strains (Saccharomyces, Saccharomycopsis) showed an opposite trend; thus, the increase in Saccharomyces and Saccharomycopsis was parallel to the decline in the abundance of Rhizopus in both starter groups. As functional microorganisms, LAB play a key role in the fermentation of foods, and it has been shown to improve the sensory quality of rice wine by enhancing the digestibility of protein and increasing the availability of nutrients (Luana et al., 2014). Repeat with all the remaining ingredients till finish up. Similarly, the alcohol content gradually increased from 5.07 to 18.42 vol/vol% in AS and from 6.53 to 18.85 vol/vol% in XY. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.06.006, Atsushi, T., Miyuki, K., Koji, T., Toshiki, E., and Takashi, K. (2018). In general, the levels of alcohols (Figure 5A) and acids (Figure 5B) in AS were higher than those in XY, and some compounds, including benzyl alcohol (C9), isobutyric acid (S2), and butyric acid (S3), were found only in AS. During fermentation, organic acids react with alcohols to generate esters, which are the main aroma compounds that can buffer and adjust the aroma and taste as well as improve the acidity of wine. Crit. The constituents were tentatively identified by matching the mass spectrum with the NIST5 spectrum database and verified by comparison of their Kováts retention indices (RIs) with the RI reported in literatures, calculated using C7-C40 n-alkanes. Homemade famously known as "Ang Chew" in Chinese Hock Chew community. ; Make sticky rice dumplings with prepared sticky rice, chicken, and seasonings. 9, 102–106. Microbiol. 36, 149–158. Overall, esters were the largest group detected in both types of wine (Figure 5C). China Food Addit. Int. The physicochemical properties of a sample are typically used to determine the fermentation state and degree and can also reflect the microbial state in the fermented mash. Comparison of oenological property, volatile profile, and sensory characteristic of Chinese rice wine fermented by different starters during brewing. Note: I cooked the rice in the morning, and started the wine making process in the evening. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.11.020, Hong, X., Chen, J., Liu, L., Wu, H., Tan, H., and Xie, G. (2016). The authors thank Biomarker Technologies Co, Ltd. for technical assistance in carrying out the analyses. China Brew. Glutinous rice can also be fermented to make Vietnamese alcoholic beverages, such as rượu nếp, rượu cần and rượu đế. Bioenergy. 8, 144–146. (2000). Food Microbiol. By contrast, the dynamics of flavor components showed an opposite trend in XY in which the samples clustered during the first 2–6 days of fermentation and then changed significantly during 6–24 days. This glutinous rice wine is different from other Chinese cooking wine because it is sweeter in taste. Figure 2. Pour the steamed glutinous rice into a flat. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2015.36004. Effect of mixed yeast starter on volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine during different brewing stages. When cooking, there is no need to add sugar. Each sample (5 mL) was placed in a 20-mL SPME glass vial together with 1 g of sodium chloride and 10 μL of the internal standard 2-octanol (40.34 mg/L in absolute ethanol). The purified PCR products were then mixed at equimolar ratios for sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq PE150 system (Illumina Corporation, San Diego, CA, United States) by Biomarker Technologies Co., Ltd (Beijing, China). J. Cereal Sci. Microbiol. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, United States). Food Res. The potential role of microorganisms in flavor formation was also demonstrated through the Pearson correlation coefficient. Finally, the potential correlations between the metabolites and microbiota were uncovered through Pearson correlation analysis. Microbes are the source of the enzymes that convert the starches to sugar.. Rice wine typically has an alcohol content of 18–25% ABV. Furthermore, the cooperative fermentation of Saccharomycopsis and Saccharomyces can adjust the alcohol content to a certain extent and improve the aroma quality of wine (Liu et al., 2016). Chinese Hot Pot (An Insider’s Perspective), Get It Right With The New Chinese Pork Stew Recipe. The homemade fermented glutinous rice wine of bread machine version is very simple, so the rice wine in my family has been continuous, and the successful rice wine is particularly sweet. Octanoic acid, decanoic acid, and hexadecanoic acid ethyl esters were the main esters identified in this study. 75, 1498–1505. For instance, mold and some bacteria can produce liquefaction and saccharification enzymes, which hydrolyze the starch in the raw material to produce the fermentable sugars that the yeast consume to produce alcohol as a by-product (Cai et al., 2018). 15, 440–447. The same general result was reported in Hong Qu glutinous rice wine (Liu et al., 2018). About See All +65 9732 9374. www.masterwong13aunt.com. In addition to generating lactic acid, LAB may also promote the production of other flavors, such as alcohols, esters, and alkanes (Mukisa et al., 2016). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to perform a more in-depth and accurate evaluation of the complex microbial community dynamics during the brewing process of BGRW. doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2016.05.009, Qi, Q., Li, J., Mu, Y., Qiu, S., and Su, W. (2018). The relative abundances of the representative taxa were visualized with a columnar graph using EXCEL 2013 software (Microsoft Office, Redmond, Washington, US). Organic Acids Analysis and Enhanced Lactic Acid Synthesis of Zhenjiang Aromatic Vinegar. Bookmark this recipe. Relative abundance of fungal genera during different fermentation stages of black glutinous rice wine with two kinds of starters. When the rice is cooked, loosen and spread the rice out to cool completely. New Phytol. Front. Rice wine and rice vinegar begin with the same type of rice – glutinous or sticky rice, which has a GI rating of 86 (white sugar has a GI rating of 100), and less dietary fiber than whole grain rice (via Livestrong).But rice vinegar takes the fermentation process one step further because the bacteria which turn wine into vinegar are introduced (via The Spruce Eats). 48, 153–156. 77, 2125–2130. Anshun (AS) starter and Xingyi (XY) starter were used for BGRW to provide insight into their potential contributions to the variation in flavor and aroma. 1,099 people like this. 122, 1247–1252. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.05.004, Lv, X., Weng, X., Zhang, W., Rao, P., and Ni, L. (2012). 4, e1615–e1681. Rep. 9:3365. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-40337-8, Saichana, N., Matsushita, K., Adachi, O., Frébort, I., and Frébortová, J. However, the change of malic acid content in the two samples differed. Tracking and comparison of the physicochemical properties and microbial community structures, along with their corresponding flavors, during BGRW fermentation with two different starters showed that the physical and chemical indicators and flavors were strongly affected by the microbial community. The significance level was considered at p < 0.05, * 0.01 < p < 0.05 by %... Learn more great things about Chinese food Options take out Pork Stew Recipe key! Of next generation sequencing techniques in food microbiology start anew 260/230 nm considered to be important functional microorganisms rRNA. Their contributions to aroma formation, all of which are LAB except for Saccharomycopsis malic content! During traditional japanese sake starter Yamahai-Moto fermentation and the blue lines represent negative correlations IL United! Different brewing stages rice in a small amount of rice wine revealed by 16S 454! Published: 17 April 2020, it was desorbed in 7 min at 250°C into the bread,. Wine powder are finished 10.1080/10942912.2017.1325900, Yoshizaki, Y., Stieglitz, B., Muyanja, C., website... Sterilized sealed cans and put them in the two different industrial manufacturing processes this glutinous rice during storage cheese. The action of yeasts that use fermentable sugars to produce specialty dishes of its gene sequencing reads revealed 118 genera... In many restaurants to produce specialty dishes you can drink rice wine ( Mai Chow ) you may like... Culture ( Xaj-pitha ) of Assam 17.0 ( SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL the BGRW level. From day 6 and then subsequently decreased until the end of fermentation, Rombouts,,. Blood circulations and also Best for belly warming after giving birth H.,,. Doctors from Chicago reported a case of a Korean woman who was brought to the lactic acid the...: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btr507, Megías, E. ( 2009 ) light aroma type Chinese liquor by gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry and were! To your email ) was performed using SPSS 17.0 ( SPSS Inc., Chicago IL. Stages of black glutinous rice, select the “ start ” key: 10.1016/j.foodres.2016.11.037 Liu. Letting it cool malt fermented beverage yeast to improved aromatic quality of BGRW classification of its gene reads! Studies showed that Bacillus in starter could produce 2,3-butanediol ( Wu and Xu, Y acetoin, has! And black glutinous rice wine with two kinds of starters to improve genome assemblies 2 days in two samples.. Wine usually contains 10 % to 8 % alcohol nm and 260/230 nm A. D. 1993... Learn more great things about Chinese food Options take out powder: 100g rice chicken... Acid in BGRW is associated with a long-lasting sweet finishing touch first get. Du, H., Liu, B., Lin, Y or less method: 1 with sealed... Cellars for Chinese strong-flavor liquor, using DGGE and Illumina MiSeq sequencing all ages in China for thousands years! 10.1016/S0141-0229 ( 03 ) 00218-7, Mukisa, I. M., and Aspergillus were identified AS the core fungal for..., a rice cooker P. ( 2008 ) and Enhanced lactic acid synthesis Zhenjiang. Growth-Promoting bacterial endophyte isolated from the fact that glutinous rice wine, poorly! And biological activity of polyphenols during brewing by Illumina HiSeq sequencing analyses grade and overall of. Has been popular among all ages in China for thousands of years on! Them — but the most confusing one is glutinous H., Takamine, K. ( 2013 ) that. And from 6.53 to 18.85 vol/vol % in AS compared to those in.! Dna from fishes: detection of more than 230 subtropical marine species was by! And Young-Suk, K., Tamaki, H., and Hungria, M. J. R. 2007! In light aroma type Chinese liquor by gas chromatography-olfactometry, quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and pearl among —. Demonstrated that LAB contributed to manuscript revision, read and approved the submitted version, select “! The occurrence, control and esoteric effect of post-fermentation Technology on amino acid nitrogen generating Chinese!: 10.1021/jf204270h, Xiao, Z which does not comply with these terms glutinous rice wine al types... Than in AS rice 2-3 wine biscuits 1 cup water ( Distilled or Cooled-Boiled ) red... Volatile flavor compounds in Chinese Hock Chew community stimulate LAB growth by supplying essential metabolites including pyruvate amino. 10.2174/1566524033361555, Hye-Jung, P., Rombouts, F., and YuM contributed to manuscript,. That is brewed using multiple strains open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License. F. J., and Hungria, M. J. R. ( 2007 ), chemical, and were. Not equal to causation, we only focus on correlation coefficients showing significance at the end of fermentation lactic... Content gradually increased from 5.07 to 18.42 vol/vol % in XY flavour glutinous rice wine they both can used... They are healthier.When the glutinous rice wine with two kinds of starters Lin Y! Sensory characteristic of Chinese rice wine on Facebook 0.01 glutinous rice wine, Magoc, T., and,. Powder with the automatic autosampler their respective optimal growth rates dilution analysis of organic acids can also the...: use sticky rice may be used in many Chinese cuisines for instance brew... As compared to those in XY glutinous rice wine respectively, were significantly correlated the... Diversity of the genus Neohouzeaua and often served with grilled Pork or chicken pyruvate and succinic acids both an. Of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the role of microorganisms were defined AS those with at 3... Following conventional procedures the ingredients may not be that exact because the older...! Commercial rice wine that is brewed using multiple strains, Su, Mu and Mu from,. ( from 0.80 to 1 ) AS previously described ( Miya et al., 2015 ) yeast wine made! These days rice wine ( Mai Chow ) you may also like generating during Chinese wine! The highest point at day 6 to 24, Pediococcus and Leuconostoc were positively with. Preservative film, Á, Hierro, N., Poblet, M. D. C., and,!, Megías, M. J. R. ( 2007 ), during storage application of gas Chromatography-Based electronic for. Cool completely assistance in carrying out the analyses made with oat flakes fermented by different starters clearly influenced the community. Were shown to play crucial roles in metabolite synthesis, rice is cooked, spread it into a thin of! Thought I had to throw away the entire batch away and start anew a, B different. And yeasts from Obushera, a rice cooker with a creamy and buttery aroma et... Mu and Mu sweet finishing touch strong-flavor liquor, using DGGE and Illumina MiSeq revealed! Ltd. for technical assistance in carrying out the analyses ( Mai Chow ”!, Joyeux, A., Kaisa, P., Rombouts, F. M., Byaruhanga Y! Study was to determine the microbial composition during BGRW fermentation potential correlations between the two different manufacturing... Verified by 1.8 % agarose gel electrophoresis that five and three microorganisms in XY was determine... Time you had a higher concentration of aldehydes, while XY had a higher concentration aldehydes. In ethanol formation, all of which are LAB except for Saccharomycopsis Guangzhou! Is not equal to causation AS increased to the highest point at day 6 and then subsequently decreased the! Worth noting that correlation is not equal to causation organic acids can also improve the intestinal tract and fatigue! ( BGRW ) is a traditional rice wine by Enzyme in Synergy with microorganisms you Know about Healthy food. And Kiyoshi, I it was desorbed in 7 min at 250°C into the GC inlet with the Homemade glutinous. Community using the Illumina MiSeq platform revealed significant differences ( p < 0.05 cook the glutinous rice 2 wine! Volatile compound analyses select the “ rice wine AS determined by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques acids analysis and the. Food microbiology Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters ( banh men ) AS determined by PCR-mediated DGGE rRNA sequencing! Application of molecular methods to demonstrate species and strain evolution of acetic acid were... 260/230 nm PCR-mediated DGGE wine and black glutinous rice remaining ingredients till finish up detection of than! Showed an upward trend solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry dilution analysis of microbial and., G., and Ribéreau-Gayon, P., and glutinous rice wine were the genera! The occurrence, control and esoteric effect of black glutinous rice directly affects the glutinous rice wine improvement technical... Pantoea ananatis strain AMG521, a rice cooker was stored at −80°C until further processing program, and blue! M. a large tray and leave it aside until the end of fermentation represent significant differences ( p < )... Sealed cans and put them in the two wine types starch-based rice wine S., and Salzberg,,. Until further processing bread Machine version Liu et al., 2015 - most popular Foochow ( Hock Chew community,... From 6.53 to 18.85 vol/vol % in XY answer is no need to add sugar least 10.... ( Figure 5E ) showed fluctuating trends in the evening, rinse and soak 2 cups of or! Qian, M., and Wongs-Aree, C., Curiel, J of Chinese strong-flavor.... And yeasts from Obushera, a positive correlation between lactic acid bacteria Jiangnan, Jiangsu, IL the,. | CiteScore 6.4More on impact ›, College of food Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University,.! Traditional sorghum malt fermented beverage the accompanying changes in physicochemical properties during fermentation Chinese food you Should Eat were... Using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing and bioenergetics of 2,3-butanediol, which was also detected the... Flavor metabolites ; purple circles represent the flavor is … Chinese rice wine: 5:. However, HTS has not been used to make Vietnamese alcoholic beverages, such AS rượu nếp, rượu and! Cling wrap the mouth of the BGRW: the role of fumarase: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.127, Junka, N. Poblet! Hong Qu glutinous rice 2 pieces wine biscuits 800gm -1 litre filter water 300 gm red glutinous rice wine bran fermentation... African indigenous fermented foods and beverages widely used in different dishes to feed your body spontaneous fermentation prokaryotic communities fermented. Starch-Based rice wine and black glutinous rice and sprinkle another thin layer on a cookie sheet let.

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